Capsicum – Vegetable Wikipedia | Varieties Sowing and Benefits

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Capsicum, also called chili pepper, is a plant of the genus Capsicum. It is native to the Americas and is a member of the nightshade family. Capsicum has many health benefits and uses. One of its most popular uses is in food.

Capsicum as a vegetable can be found in many dishes around the world, from Mexican to Indian cuisine. It can be used fresh or dried, and it provides a great flavor to any dish that it is added to.

Capsicum also has many health benefits for your body like helping with arthritis pain relief and lowering cholesterol levels in your blood stream is a member of the nightshade family. There are many types of capsicum including bell pepper (species “Capsicum annuum”), jalapeno pepper (species “Capsicum chinense”), and hot chili peppers.

Capsicum Seeds Varieties Cultivation Care and Benefits

Capsicum Common Names:


Capsicum in EnglishBell peppers, 
Carom in HindiAjwain(अजवाइन), Ajowan 
Capsicum in Tamilகேப்சிகம் (Kēpcikam)
Capsicum in Teluguక్యారమ్ విత్తనాలు
Capsicum in Marathiअजवाइन (कॅरम) बियाणे
Capsicum in Kannadaಅಜ್ವೈನ್ಕ್ಯಾ (ರಮ್ ಬೀಜಗಳು)
Capsicum in Malayalamഅജ്‌വെയ്ൻ
Capsicum in Gujaratiકેપ્સીકમ(Kēpsīkama)
Capsicum in Bengaliক্যাপসিকাম (Kyāpasikāma)
Capsicum in Odiaକ୍ୟାପସିକମ୍

Capsicum Botanical Name:

Capsicum Family:

Capsicum Plant Height: Although the height of the capsicum plant varies according on the variety, it typically grows to a height of 30 to 90 cm.

Short Introduction

Capsicum Nutrition:

Capsicum contains nutritional elements like Vitamin C and Vitamin A and minerals like iron, potassium, zinc, calcium, etc.

Calories86.2 kcal
Total Fat3.9 g
Saturated Fat0.5 g
Total Carbohydrate12.5 g
Dietary Fiber0.6 g
Protein2.0 g
Cholesterol0.0 mg
Sodium33.0 mg
Potassium359.1 mg
Vitamin A9.8%
Vitamin B611.3%
Vitamin C30.5%
Vitamin E1.1%

Varieties of Capsicum seeds

In the advanced varieties of capsicum, Arka Gaurav, Arka Mohini, King of North, California Wonder, Arka Basant, Aishwarya, Alankar, Hari Rani, etc. are prominent.

Capsicum plant Leaves

The plant’s leaves have an oval shape and are a vibrant green colour. The size of the fruit and the leaf are inversely related.

Capsicum Cultivation Practice:

SOIL: Well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter


SUNLIGHT: Avoid direct exposure to sunlight 

WATERING: Irrigation at weekly or 10 days interval


Capsicum Plantation and Care

Farm plowing and soil preparation for Capsicum

After the first round of ploughing, which is done   soil reverse plough, 3-4 additional rounds of ploughing should be done using harrows or cultivators. The field should be leveled up.

Method of planting Capsicum

Capsicum plants are ready for transplantation in 30-35 days. Capsicum should be planted at a distance of 45×45 cm from each other. In low-lying areas, the distance should be 50×50 cm.

Form ridges and furrows 45 or 60 cm apart. Transplant 30-35 days old seedlings at 50 cm spacing.

Capsicum Cultivation Fertilizer information

10-15 tonnes of cow dung compost should be mixed well in the soil after 1 month of sowing. Generally, fertilizers should be used after soil testing, but if it cannot be done for some reason, 120kg nitrogen, 60kg phosphorus, 60kg potash per hectare can be added to the field.

Weed control in Capsicum

Keeping weeds away from the farm for 30-45.

A good yield is essential for a good planting season. Weeding and hoeing twice is beneficial. The first round of weeding-hoeing should be done after 25 days and the next round after 45 days of plantation.


Powdery mildew: Spray wettable sulphur @ 2g /l

Dieback and fruit rot: Spray Mancozeb @ 2g /l

Auxiliary machines

Soil reverse plough, native plough, harrow, spud, hoe, spade, etc. are the required tools.

Benefits of eating Capsicum

Capsicums are a type of vegetable that is rich in nutrients and has many health benefits. Capsicum is a plant of the nightshade family, which is rich in vitamin C and potassium. It can be used as a spice and food to achieve many health goals. 

There are many ways that one can enjoy the benefits of capsicums to lose weight or maintain a healthy lifestyle. Capsicums are also fat-free, and cholesterol-free, and have more than 100% of your daily recommended amount of Vitamin A in them which has many health benefits including:·

  • Heart Health: Vitamin A deficiency can lead to an increased risk of heart disease and cancer.
  • Vitamin A also helps to protect against macular degeneration which is when the eyes start to lose sight.
  • Eye Health: Capsicum has a lot of Vitamin A in it which helps the eyes to remain healthy.

Capsicum is rich in potassium, which can help with blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular benefits.

Capsicum is rich in antioxidants-Capsicum has significant levels of carotenoids, lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin which are all important antioxidants that battle free radicals and heart disease risks.

Capsicum is rich in Vitamin C which is important for collagen production and healthy connective tissue.

Capsicum also contains a lot of Vitamin B6, which helps to regulate blood sugar levels.

Spicy food is also rich in phytochemicals which have cancer prevention benefits.

Capsicum Culinary Use

Capsicum is a vegetable that has been used in cooking for thousands of years. It is popular in many cuisines around the world and it has a wide range of health benefits. 

The vegetable is rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that are essential for good health. It also contains capsaicin which provides various health benefits such as relief from pain, better digestion, increased metabolism, and weight loss. 

Making capsicum a regular part of your diet can help you maintain your weight or lose weight if you are overweight. You can include it in salads or eat it raw with dips as an appetizer.

-If you love your capsicum, why not start your day with a spicy breakfast?


Depending on the variety picked and your climate, capsicums take up to 3 months to mature into fruit.

Warm climates are ideal for chillies and capsicums. They are especially vulnerable to extreme cold and heat. Pollination may be hampered if the temperature rises over 32 degrees Celsius. Disease risk might be increased by rain and excessive humidity.
This crop needs relative humidity of 50–60%, daytime temperatures of 25–300°C, and nighttime temperatures of 18–200°C.

Indra, Yamuna (Green), Bomby, Natasha, Inspiration, Triple Star, Pasarella (Red), Sunnyez, Orobelle, Swarna and Bachata are some of the commercial hybrids that are frequently planted in India 


Sunil is the founder of Prettywings Digital. He is a passionate Blogger and a successful Ecommerce Seller. He loves sharing his knowledge through his various blogs and YouTube channels.

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