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Role of Public and Private Sector in Seed Production

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  • Post last modified:December 21, 2021
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Private and Public Sector Contribution in Seed Production

Over the last few years, the private sector has begun to play a larger role in the seed market. Currently, there are around 400 or 500 enterprises involved in seed production or seed commerce.

 Private seed businesses, on the other hand, have concentrated their efforts on high-value, low-volume seeds and the market for low-value, high-volume seeds. Seeds of cereals, pulses, and oilseeds are still mostly controlled by public seed firms. In the case of maize, sunflower, and cotton, private sector enterprises play a key role. 

The private sector, on the other hand, is the leading participant in the production of vegetable seeds and planting supplies for horticulture crops. 

Because the private sector has been hesitant to enter the seed business for high-volume, low-margin crops like as wheat, paddy, other cereals, oilseeds, and pulses, public seed businesses will continue to be dominant in cereals, pulses, and oilseeds for many more years. 

Currently, there are 15 state seed corporations and two national seed corporations.

In India, the National Seeds Corporation of India and the State Farms Corporation of India are both operational. Furthermore, where State Seeds businesses do not exist, considerable volumes of seeds are generated by State Departments of Agriculture. 

The following table shows the contribution of private sector seed companies to overall seed production in the country:

Year of Production

Total Seed Production
 (Lakh qtls.)

Share of private sector













The following map depicts the major seed production states.


Indian States and their Major Crops

Odisha – Paddy

Andra Pradesh – Paddy, Groundnut, Sunflower, Jute, Corn, Pigeon Pea

Tamil Nadu – Paddy, Cotton, Green Gram, Black Gram

Karnataka – Paddy, Groundnut, Sunflower, Jute, Corn, Pigeon Pea, Vegetable

Maharashtra – Paddy, Groundnut, Sunflower, Jute, Corn, Pigeon Pea, Soyabean, Vegetable, Cotton

Gujarat – Groundnut, Cotton, Castor

Rajasthan – Wheat, Mustard, Gram

Uttar Pradesh – Wheat, Mustard, Gram, Paddy, Green Gram, Black Gram

Bhopal – Wheat, Soyabean, Red Gram, Gram

Punjab – Wheat, Paddy

Haryana – Wheat, Paddy, Mustard

Uttrakhand – Wheat, Paddy



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Sunil is the founder of Prettywings Digital. He is a passionate Blogger and a successful Ecommerce Seller. He loves sharing his knowledge through his various blogs and YouTube channels.

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