Variety Registration Procedures
Initial Yield Evaluation Trial (IET) or Preliminary Yield Trial (PYT)
Each variety must go through three stages of testing. Breeders submit their finest entries for testing in the Initial Yield Evaluation Trial (IET) or Preliminary Yield Trial (PYT) based on evaluations conducted in their local program (PYT). In each zone, these trials are divided into a specific number of Places.
Simultaneously, these entries are sent to pathologists so that they can analyze how they react to various diseases. In IET/PYT, entries that meet the yield, disease, and quality criteria are tested in the Uniform Regional Trials (URT).
Advanced Varietal Trials (AVT) or Coordinated Varietal Trials (CVT)
Advanced Varietal Trials (AVT) or Coordinated Varietal Trials (CVT) are other names for these studies. These trials are organised in each zone at a large number of locations, and the plot size is larger than that in IET. The reactions to various diseases, pests, and quality features are also studied throughout the tests.
Entries that pass the second phase are re-evaluated in the URT and simultaneously distributed to pathologists, entomologists, nematologists, agronomists, and quality evaluation groups, who will thoroughly examine the entries for aspects relevant to their respective disciplines.
Other metrics are also measured in real time. The agronomy group assesses these entries for their adaptability to a variety of agronomic variables such as sowing dates, fertiliser levels, and irrigation frequency, among others. These are occasionally examined to see how they react to common herbicides.
Expert Committe Discussion
Following the tests, a critical dialogue takes place in a crop workshop. At the workshop, a Special Committee of multidisciplinary experts is formed to review the ideas for identifying the varieties for release.
SAUs and Government Research Institutes develop new varieties, which are tested in limited locations within the concerned states.
In 1982, the Central Seed Committee (CSC) suggested that varieties of national importance be tested as part of the All India Crop Improvement Project.
Although some have doubts about this choice, all states are now supplying samples for the coordinated trials. State governments and their research institutes across the country should embrace the concept of simultaneous testing of state varieties in coordinated trials.
Simultaneous testing of all State varieties, as well as the Central Varieties, allows the State varieties to be exposed to a variety of environments. This will aid in the identification of varieties that are especially susceptible to diseases and pests, and whose release could cause difficulties in other states.
Plant Breeder’s identification of superior genotypes can only help the public if they are made available for commercial multiplication. As a result, it’s critical to keep a mechanism in place that makes large quantities of promising genotypes available for commercial production. The release of the varieties is the name given to this process. The goal of the release strategy is to make newly developed varieties available to the general population for broad cultivation in places where they are acceptable. It can be used as a reference when selecting types for cultivation in any region.
With the founding of the Central Variety Release Committee (CVRC) at the federal level and the State Variety Release Committee (SARC) at the state level in October 1964, the practise of officially releasing varieties began.
The CVRC operated until November 1969, when the CSC created Seeds Act, 1966 took over its activities. A Central Sub-committee on Crop Standards, Notification, and Varieties Release was established by the CSC (CSC on CS, N&RV).
At the national level, the sub-committee is responsible for the release and notification of varieties, while at the state level, State Seed Sub-Committees (SSSCs) are in charge of similar duties.
All entities involved in seed research, production, and quality control, including state governments, SCAs, SAUs, ICAR Institutes, seed producing agencies in the public and commercial sectors, and seed farmers, are represented by the CSC and its Sub-committee.